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Finding Intervals

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Finding Intervals

Octave = pitch distance between the first note and the last note of the chromatic scale.
The octave is divided into 12 equal parts, or pitches, which are called semitones.

Intervals are the distances between pitches or notes measured in half-steps or semitones.

The following table shows each note of the chromatic scale is evenly spaced one Half-step apart.
Further down the table we have the Major Scale. Compare the difference in the spacing of notes.
H = Half Step = 1 Semitone = 1 fret
W = Whole Step = 2 Half Steps = 2 Semitones = 1 Tone = 2 frets
R = Root

Chromatic and Major Scale / Interval Table
Chromatic Scale = 1 Octave = 12 H = 12 Semitones
<----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->
#ofsemitonesfromRoot 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CChromaticScale(usingb's) C Db D Eb E F Gb G Ab A Bb B C
CChromaticScale(using#'s) C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C
ChromaticScaleformula R H H H H H H H H H H H H
Major Scale = 1 Octave
<----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->
MajorScaleFormula R W W H W W W H
CMajor C D E F G A B C
#ofsemitonesifromRoot 0 2 4 5 7 9 11 12
Interval TableMajor Scale = 1 Octave = Chromatic Scale
<----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->
ChromaticScaleformula R H H H H H H H H H H H H
MajorScaleFormula R W W H W W W H
#ofsemitonesfromRoot 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
CMajor+Chromatics C Db D Eb E F Gb G Ab A Bb B C
IntervalName:1stOctave
Interval'sInversionName
P1
P8
m2
M7
M2
m7
m3
M6
M3
m6
P4
P5
D5
A4

P5
P4
m6
M3
M6
m3
m7
M2
M7
m2
P8
P1
#ofsemitonesfromRoot
2ndOct=1stOctvalue+12
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
IntervalName:2ndOctave P8 m9 M9 m10 M10 P11 A11
D12
P12 m13 M13 m14 M14 P15
P = Perfect, M = Major, m = minor, A = augmented, D = diminished, R = Root, H = Half step, W = Wholestep

The table clearly shows both scales span the same distance of 12 semitones from C to C.
If you examine the Chromatic Scale you'll find that it is the SAME FOR ALL KEYS
The only difference would be in the STARTING POINT which gives the scale its name.


If we write the C Chromatic Scale (using flats) in 2 Octaves we get:
C _C _ C = C _Db_D_Eb_E_F _Gb_G_Ab_A_Bb_B_C _Db_D_Eb_E_F _Gb_G_Ab_A_Bb_B_C
C Cromatic goes from C to C
F Chromatic goes from F to F
Gb Chromatic goes from Gb to Gb
In other words, all the other scales are sets that start at a different point.
This approach is similar to the one used for modes where:
C Major Scale = Ionian mode if we start and end on C, Dorian mode if we start and end on D etc.....


If we write the C Chromatic Scale (using sharps) in 2 Octaves we get:
C _C _ C = C _C#_D_D#_E_F_F#_G_G#_A_A#_B_C _C#_D_D#_E_F_F#_G_G#_A_A#_B_C
C Cromatic goes from C to C where first C = 0, C# = 1, D = 2, D# = 3, E = 4 etc.....and second C = 12
D Cromatic goes from D to D
E Cromatic goes from E to E
A Cromatic goes from A to A
Finding the Major Scale becomes a process of writing out the Chromatic scale and
assigning the numbers 0 to 12 for each letter where 0 = starting value = Name of key.

0_2_4_5_7_9_11_12 = Major Scale Notes = R_W_W_H_W_W_W_H
Examine the sequence and notice: Even Numbers_Odd Numbers_Even Number